Monomers are dispersed in an aqueous phase during emulsion polymerization. This phase generates initiator radicals that migrate into soap micelles full of monomer molecules.
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As more monomers migrate into the micelle, polymerization continues as a process. With only one free radical is present in the micelle prior to termination of the process, you can achieve very high molecular weights of 1 million or more. The viscosity of the medium where the particles are dispersed determines the viscosity of the latex. At the end, the emulsion latex particle is in fact an oil in water emulsion when aqueous.
In solution polymerization, a processor dissolves a monomer in a suitable solvent, along with chain transfer agents and a free radical initiator. The catalyst can be either ionic or a coordination catalyst either dissolved or suspended. Inert solvents promote viscosity control and proper levels of heat transfer. In many cases, manufacturers use water as the primary solvent. Emulsion polymerization is the most widely-used technique for industrial use--processors polymerize monomers such as styrene, butadiene,methyl methacrylate, and vinyl acetate.
At Mallard Creek Polymers, we use emulsion polymerization to develop a variety of products for multiple market applications. With emulsion polymerization, we achieve latex particles, a dispersion of polymer in water.
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With these latex particles as a base material, our customers can add other chemicals to form paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants, nonwovens, paper, print and packaging, construction, and textiles--the possibilities for emulsion polymers are endless. To learn more about formulating coatings based on emulsion polymers. Solution polymers also see a wide range of use in adhesives and coatings. This was extremely significant because those particles were smaller than any other latex synthesized under such conditions. Small particle sizes for this range of solids in emulsion polymerization have been made without any difficulty.
Conclusions The presence of anionic and non-ionic moieties in EP-3 and EP-6 are highly functional and those moieties assisted in generating ultrafine particles and the final latex was mechanically stable. The knowledge of anionic surfactant ionic activity is a preferable parameter to use in writing an EP formula that produces a latex with consistent quality. EP-8 is a highly efficient surfactant and, even when used as a sole emulsifier for the synthesis of a nanosphere latex, it produced a stable emulsion, a stable latex, a highly clean reactor and excellent coatability.
The cast film was homogeneous and showed ample water resistance. Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge TLC management and the Berry College students that assisted in the research process.
This paper was presented at the Waterborne Symposium. References 1. Azhar Awan and Dave Vanzin, Experimental eco-friendly surfactants for the preparations of acrylics and vinyl acrylics latexes for architectural coating, 40th Waterborne Symposium, Related Searches. Suggested For You. Scenes from the Waterborne Symposium.
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Emulsion polymerization: From fundamental mechanisms to process developments
Aqueous Inkjet Printing Challenges Over the past twenty years, the printing industry landscape has been redefined by the digital information and communication revolution characterized by a reduction in personal and office printing and increased de…. The further vinyl ester is preferably selected from the group consisting of vinyl propionate, vinyl laurate, vinyl pivalate, vinyl 2-ethylhexanoate, and vinyl esters of an a- branched carboxylic acid having 5 to 11 carbon atoms, especially vinyl esters of Versatic acid having 9 to 11 carbon atoms i.
The acrylate or methacrylate is preferably selected from the group consisting of methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, where the butyl acrylate used may be n-, iso- or tert-butyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and combinations thereof.
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The vinyl ester may be selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, vinyl laurate, vinyl pivalate, vinyl 2-ethylhexanoate, and vinyl esters of an a-branched carboxylic acid having 5 to 11 carbon atoms, especially vinyl esters of Versatic acid having 9 to 11 carbon atoms i.
The acrylate or methacrylate may be selected from the group consisting of methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, where the butyl acrylate used may be n-, iso- or tert-butyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and combinations thereof. For example, a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, or a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 1,3-butadiene, or a copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate, or a copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, or a copolymer of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate is formed.
Inverse Emulsion Polymerization - Innovation | SEPPIC
According to the present invention, the most preferred copolymers are selected from the group consisting of vinyl ester-ethylene copolymers such as vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymers, and copolymers of vinyl acetate and ethylene and a vinyl ester of Versatic acid having 9 to 11 carbon atoms i. The auxiliary monomers The above-mentioned monomers forming homo- or copolymers only represent the main monomers.
In addition, suitable auxiliary monomers can be copolymerized with the main monomers. Accordingly, it is possible to use further auxiliary comonomers, in addition to the above-described main monomers, which modify the polymer properties in a specific way. The auxiliary monomers are preferably selected from the group consisting of ethylenically unsaturated mono- and dicarboxylic acids, ethylenically unsaturated sulfonic acids or their salts, ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid amides and nitriles, ethylenically unsaturated phosphonic acids or their salts, ethylenically unsaturated ethylene urea derivatives, ethylenically unsaturated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, ethylenically.
In addition, the composition may comprise precrosslinking monomers such as. Examples of suitable ethylenically unsaturated mono- and dicarboxylic acids include acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid and fumaric acid.
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Suitable ethylenically unsaturated sulfonic acids or their salts include, for example, vinylsulfonic acid, 2-acrylamidomethyl propane sulfonic acid AMPS , 2- acryloyloxy and 2-methacryloyloxyethane sulfonic acid, 3-acryloyloxy- and 3- methacryloyloxypropane sulfonic acid and vinylbenzene sulfonic acid. Examples of ethylenically unsaturated phosphonic acids or their salts include vinylphosphonic acid. In addition to said acids, it is also possible to use the salts thereof, preferably alkali metal salts thereof or ammonium salts thereof and in particular sodium salts thereof, such as the sodium salts of vinylsulfonic acid or 2-acrylamidopropane sulfonic acid.
The use of the sodium salt of vinylsulfonic acid is particularly preferred. Suitable ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid amides and carboxylic acid nitriles include, for example, acrylonitrile, acryl amide, methacryl amide, diacetone acrylamide, croton amide, the mono- or diamide of fumaric acid, the mono- or diamide of maleic acid, the mono- or diamide of itaconic acid and the mono- or diamide of citraconic acid.
US4713434A - Continuous emulsion polymerization process - Google Patents
In addition to the amides, it is also possible to use the N-functionalized derivatives thereof, such as the N-alkyl or N,N-dialkylamides. Suitable ethylenically unsaturated ethylene urea derivatives include, for example, N-vinyl and N-allylurea and derivatives of imidazolinone, such as N-vinyl and N- allylimidazolidinone, N-vinyloxyethylimidazolidinone, N- Other derivatives of urea or imidazolidinone may also be used.
Suitable ethylenically unsaturated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds include, for example, acetylacetoxy group containing monomers such as allyl acetoacetate, vinyl acetoacetate, acetoacetoxyethyl acrylate, acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate, acetoacetoxypropyl methacrylate, 2,3-di acetoacetoxy propyl methacrylate and acetoacetoxybutyl. Suitable ethylenically unsaturated hydroxyl group or epoxy group containing monomers include, for example, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, glycidyl acrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, allyl glycidyl ether, vinyl glycidyl ether, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxybutyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate, vinylcyclohexene oxide, limonene oxide, myrcene oxide, caryophyllene oxide, vinyltoluenes and styrenes substituted with a glycidyl radical in the aromatic moiety, and vinylbenzoates substituted with a glycidyl radical in the aromatic moiety.
Preferably, the ethylenically unsaturated hydroxyl group or epoxy group containing monomers are selected from the group consisting of hydroxyethyl methacrylate, glycidyl acrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, allyl glycidyl ether, vinyl glycidyl ether, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxybutyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate,. Examples of ethylenically unsaturated silane compounds include ethylenically. CH 2 CR 3 C02 CH 2 i-3, R 2 is an unbranched or branched, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl radical having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 3 carbon atoms, or is an acyl radical having 2 to 12 carbon atoms, it being possible for R 2 to be interrupted, if desired, by an ether group, and R 3 is H or CH 3.
Examples of suitable ethylenically unsaturated silane compounds include vinyl. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the auxiliary monomer contains a silane compound selected from the group consisting of vinyl trimethoxysilane, vinyl triethoxysilane, vinyl tris- i-methoxy isopropoxy silane, methacryloxypropyl tris 2-methoxyethoxy silane, 3- methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, 3-methacryloxypropylmethyl dimethoxysilane, 3- methacryloxymethyl trimethoxysilane, and combinations thereof.
According to the present invention, the most preferred auxiliary monomers are selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, the sodium salt of vinylsulfonic acid, diallyl phthalate, vinyl trimethoxysilane, vinyl triethoxysilane, 3- methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, glycidyl acrylate and glycidyl methacrylate.
It is particularly preferred to use an ethylenically unsaturated silane monomer or an ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid in combination with an ethylenically unsaturated epoxy group containing monomer. Most preferably, 0. Alternatively, it is also preferred to use 0. The ethylenically unsaturated epoxide group containing monomer is preferably glycidyl acrylate or glycidyl methacrylate, and the ethylenically unsaturated silane compound is preferably 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, vinyltrimethoxy silane or vinyltriethoxy silane.
In the above cases, the further main monomer is preferably selected from the group consisting of methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, vinyl propionate, vinyl laurate, vinyl palmitate, vinyl myristate, vinyl pivalate, vinyl 2-ethylhexanoate, and vinyl esters of an a- branched carboxylic acid having 5 to 11 carbon atoms, especially vinyl esters of Versatic acid having 9 to 11 carbon atoms i. The monomers used in the process of the invention are to be selected such as to produce a polymer or copolymer having the properties that are needed for the desired end application.
This can be done by setting the glass transition temperature of the polymers formed and the corresponding copolymerization parameters in a manner which is known to the person skilled in the art. The T g may also be calculated approximately in advance by means of the Fox equation, in a conventional manner. It is further possible to add an additional hydrolyzable silicon compound before, during or after the polymerization reaction phase.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the hydrolyzable silicon compound is selected from the group consisting of hydrolyzable epoxy silanes, hydrolyzable amino silanes, hydrolyzable mercapto silanes, hydrolyzable alkoxy silane compounds having the formula R 6 n -Si-. OR 7 4 - n , wherein n is o, 1, 2 or 3, and R 6 and R 7 are each independently a straight-chain or branched alkyl, and combinations thereof. Suitable hydrolyzable epoxy silanes include, for example, 3-glycidoxypropyl. Suitable hydrolyzable amino silanes include, for example, 3- 2-aminoethylamino propyl trimethoxysilane, and 3- 2-aminoethylamino propyl methyldimethoxysilane.
Suitable hydrolyzable mercapto silanes include, for example, mercaptosilanes of the general formula HS- CR 4 2 i- 3 -SiR 5 3 , where R 4 is identical or different and is H or a Ci to Ce alkyl group, R 5 is identical or different and is a Ci to Ce alkyl group or Ci to Ce alkoxy group, at least one of the radicals R 5 being an alkoxy group. Preferably, the hydrolyzable mercapto silanes are selected from the group consisting of 3-mercaptopropyl. Suitable hydrolyzable alkoxy silane compounds include, for example, silanes of the formula R 6 n -Si- OR 7 4 - n , wherein n is o, 1, 2 or 3, and R 6 and R 7 are each independently a straight-chain or branched C1-C16 alkyl.